Dr Judy Spies is a Staff Specialist in Neurology and Director of the Autonomics Laboratory at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney; and Senior Lecturer at the University of Sydney. She completed her training in Neurology at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and subsequently completed Fellowships in autonomic disorders and peripheral nerve disease at The Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins hospital respectively. Her PhD studies focused on the synergy of T and B cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathies and generated several key publications in this area. More recent work has centered on autonomic dysfunction, particularly in the context of small fibre neuropathies. Dr Spies is a consultant Neurologist in the RPA MS Clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre.